# Science Circles Curriculum

## NEWTON

Science, experimentation, and measurement

• The Map of Physics, From Galaxies down to Subatomic Particles
• Scientific notation, exponents, and Prefixes
• Famous and influential physicists and the related histories
• Base and physical quantities
• SI Units, units' conversion via introducing density
• Measurement: measuring length, the results are not precise but accurate, measurement errors, reducing errors
• What are investigations? Variables and values, testing, collecting data
• Learn how to write a simple Lab Report
• Vectors and Scalars
• Making estimations: Fermi questions

Astrophysics / Astronomy

• The Universe: The Sun, The Planets, Asteroids, Meteors and Comets, Dwarfs Planets, and other elements of the Universe

Mechanics

• 1D Motion: Learning the required terminologies, Displacement, Velocity, Time, Acceleration, Speed, Distance Travelled, Time Taken, Other units of speed
• Motion Graphs: distance-time graphs, speed-time graphs, acceleration-time graph

Forces and Dynamics:

• Everyday forces, measuring forces, weight, mass, the difference between weight and mass
• Newton’s laws of Motions: Newton's First law, Newton's Second law, the relationship between force and acceleration, Newton's Third law
• Normal Force and Contact Force
• Balanced and unbalanced Forces
• Friction, Drag, Air resistance, Sinking and floating
• Free Fall
• Springs: stretching and forces
• Turning Forces: balanced moments
• Pressure: pressure and area, pressure and force, calculating pressure, pressure in liquids and gases, Atmospheric pressure, Hydraulic systems
• Investigating forces and motions and application of forces
• Momentum and Impulse, Conservation of momentum, Collisions

Gravitational force

• Gravity: Weight and Gravity, how is gravity on different planets? achieving space travel from Earth, Satellites, Geostationary Orbits, The Moon's Orbit, Orbiting Planets
• Gravitational Force
• Newton's law of Gravitation

Click HERE to see some of the experiments we will be conducting. Each unit will include problem solving – we will learn not only how to ask good science questions but also how to answer them. We will be using science equipment, as well as smartphone science apps, such as Physics Toolbox Suite, Sky Map, Science Journal, and PhET.

## FEYNMAN I

Work, Energy, and Power

• Famous and impactful physicists and the related histories
• Introduction to work and energy
• Introduction to Energy: Energy, Forms of Energy, Energy Transfers, Conservation of energy, Kinetic Energy, Potential Energy, Gravitational Potential Energy
• Thermal energy: thermal energy and temperature, heating different substances, Conduction, particle theory of conduction, Convection, convection in the home, coastal breezes, windy weather, using convection currents to fly, Radiation, absorbing and reflecting, infra-red radiation, Evaporation, particle explanation of evaporation, reducing heat losses, reducing thermal energy losses from home
• Energy resources: energy is renewable or non-renewable? where does the energy go? What are the energy resources? fossil fuels, nuclear energy, solar energy, energy from the sun, wind energy, wave energy, tidal energy, hydroelectric energy, how to reduce the use of electrical energy? ways of saving electrical energy at home, how to reduce the use of fossil fuels? What is greenhouse effect?
• What is power?
• Springs and Hooke's Law: potential energy in a spring, Mechanical Advantage
• Describing motion along a straight line: experimenting with a motion sensor (a sonic ranger)
• Learning to ask questions: exploration of new vocabulary and applications
• Connecting mathematical, graphical, and verbal descriptions of motion
• Using PhET simulations to examine motion and to explore the laws governing it
• A free fall laboratory: examining motion using force probes and motion sensors
• Using video analysis to describe motion

Electromagnetic Waves

• What is the nature of light?
• Luminous and Illuminated, Rectilinear Propagation, Shadows
• Colors: why do we get all the colors? Colored objects, colored filters, how to change the colors of the objects?
• Reflection and Refraction: what is the difference of the rough and smooth Surfaces?
• Mirrors: Reflection in a mirror, how to see the round corners? Total Internal Reflection, Prisms
• Lenses: Convex lenses, Concave lenses, Projector, Compound Microscope and Astronomical telescope
• How do we see? Eye and Sight

Astrophysics / Astronomy

• Day and Night, The Moon, Phases of the Moon, Eclipse of the Moon, Eclipse of the Sun

Wave Phenomena:

• Hearing and Sound, Pitch and Loudness, Detecting Sound, Reflection of Sound, Echoes, Using Echoes, Working out the speed of sound, Ultrasound

## FEYNMAN II

Light

• Refraction of Light
• Total Internal Reflection and Critical Angle
• Snell’s Law
• Geometric Optics
• Concave and Convex Mirrors and Images
• Concave and Convex Lenses and Images
• Prisms

Quantum Physics

• Quantum Wave Particle Duality
• Classical Particles
• Classical Waves
• Double Slit Experiment
• Electron Behavior
• Research Methods

Creating Simulations and Practical Problem Solving

• Reflection and Refraction of Light, and solving problems related to the Snell’s Law
• Geometric Optics (Lenses and Mirrors Problems)
• Student's choice of topics including: Density, Buoyancy, Momentum, Gravity and Gravitational Force, etc.

Experiments

• Sound Waves
• Everyday Life Phenomena
• Pendulums
• Sonar
• Free Fall

Other topics

• Static Electricity and Simple Electrical Circuits
• Motion: Distance Travelled, Calculating Speed, Time Taken, and Motion Graphs
• Free Fall
• Forces and moments
• Momentum and Collisions
• Fluid Mechanics - Pressure, Pressure in Liquids and Gases, Hydraulic Systems